Modeling of evaporation under different climatic conditions of India
Evaporation is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle and its accurate estimation is essential in any water resources development programme. However, it is very difficult to obtain reliable estimates of evaporation. The present study was undertaken to develop, evaluate and validate different evaporation models for different meteorological stations of India. Twenty –five to twenty seven years evaporation data were collected from twenty- five stations. Additional pan evaporation data were collected from one hundred and fourteen other meteorological stations for use in geostatistic mapping of pan evaporation.
The monthly evaporation data of the different stations were analyzed in view of (i) estimating frequencies of evaporation. (ii) developing and validating appropriate stochastic models. And (v) developing appropriate geostatistical models for mapping of pan evaporation.
Monthly evaporation of twenty five to twenty seven years data of the different stations were fitted to five different frequency distributions. From the frequency distribution dependable monthly evaporation at 5,10,25,50,70,80,90 and 95 probability levels were obtained.
Monthly stochastic models were developed using twenty five to twenty seven years evaporation data of the different stations. The generated series was compared with observed pan evaporation series. The test results indicated a high degree of model fitness to observed data series in all agro- climatic stations implying to predict evaporation very accurately.
Using mean monthly pan evaporation data from one hundred and thirty nine meteorological stations the spatial variability and structure was analyzed using variogram and modeled for use in kriging estimates geostatistic mapping of pan evaporation for India was developed for eight months. The developed model showed the strong dependability of evaporation on spatial variability.
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This article is written by Ms. Monica Gupta of Maharana Pratap University Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur on behalf of ASPEE Agriculture Research and Development Foundation. ASPEE Group of Companies is the leading manufacturer and exporter of Agriculture Sprayers and Dusters
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